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Now Published! British Butterflies - A History in Books


The Entomologist's Library


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UK Butterflies

A MYTHOLOGY OF SOME BUTTERFLY NAMES

FROM UNPUBLISHED LISTS BY LT-COL H D PEILE PUBLISHED BY AURELIAN BOOKS – DAVID DUNBAR

INTRODUCTION

This is a compilation from two handwritten lists found at the end of a volume of Dr Adalbert Seitz’s Macro-lepidoptera of the World. The bookplate indicates a previous owner to have been Lt-Col H D Peile (1872-1959), a renowned lepidopterist, and so it is fairly certain that he was the author of the lists. For some unexplained reason there was considerable duplication in the two lists so they have been merged to give one simple alphabetical reference. The handwriting was generally immaculate although just occasionally tricky to decipher and I must thank my daughter Lucy Dunbar for painstakingly typing the list. Neither of us are classical scholars and we have not attempted to verify Peile’s names or correct his notes so would welcome emailed comments which might be incorporated in a later reprint or errata list. The “names” in this list do give an insight into the origins of many scientific names afforded to butterflies and moths. The choice of some names bear obvious relevance to the species concerned. Whereas others are obscure leaving one in doubt as to what was in the mind of the 18th or 19th century taxonomists and nomenclators who discovered and first named the insects. Over the years many names have been revised by scientists wjth, no doubt, further changes to follow in the future. However, for those unfamiliar with Greek and Roman mythological characters and places the list will afford some colour and romance to the otherwise bewildering world of naming butterflies with the intention that they may be universally recognised. One thing to remember is that some of the mythological names have more than one spelling depending on the source and we have followed Peile’s version throughout. David Dunbar 3 February 2010 A Acamas, son of Theseus and Phaedra. Acca (Laventia) wife of Faustulus the shepherd who brought up Romulus and Remus. Acerbas, a priest of Hercules at Tyre who married Dido. Acestes, son of Crinisus and Egesta, a king of country near Drepanum in Sicily. Acaia, a country on the bay of Corinth. Achates, a friend of Aeneas famed for fidelity. Achelous, son of Oceanus by Tethys, and a river god. Acheron, one of the rivers of hell. Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis, was invulnerable except for his heel. Acidalia, (Venus) a fountain in Boeotia. Acontius, of Ceos, in love with Cydippe. Acragas, a mountain in Sicily. Acrisius, son of Abas King of Argos and father of Danae and Eurydice. Acron, a king of Cerina killed by Romulus. Actaea, one of the Nereides. Acte, the ancient name of Attica. Actaeon, a celebrated Greek huntsman, son of Aristaeus and Antonoe. Actor, father of Menoelius. Admeta, daughter of Eurystheus, covets Hypolyta’s girdle. Admetus, a King of Thessaly. Admetus, son of Pheres King of Pheres. Adonis, a youth beloved by Aphrodite (Venus) and Proserpine. Adrastus, son of Talaus and Lysimache, king of Argos. Aeacus, son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Aegina, renowned for justice and piety Aeeta, King of Colchis. Aegeus, King of Athens and father of Theseus. Aegina, daughter of Asopus and mother of Aeacus. Aegis, the shield of Jupiter. Aegisthus, son of Thyestes Aegyptus son of Belus and brother of Danaus. Aemonia, later called Thessaly. Aenaria, now Ischia, an island in the bay of Puteoli. Aeolus, son of Helen and Orseis Aerope, wife of Atreus. Aesacus, son of Priam by Alexirrhoe. Aesculapius, son of Apollo by Coronis and god of Medicine, physician to the Argonauts. Aethiops, a black man. Agamemnon, son of Plisthenis and grandson of Atreeus, King of Mycene and Argos; chief commander of the Greeks, not the hero of the Iliad. Aganippe, a fountain sacred to the Muses. Agenor, 1.King of Phoenicia, father of Europa and Phoenix. 2. Son of Antenor. Aglaia, one of the Graces, sister of Euphrosyne and Thalia; all daughters of Jupiter. Agrippa, Roman commander 63-12BC. Ajax, son of Telamon King of Salamis by Periboea or Eriboea. Aidoneus, Hades. Alba, the river where King Arthur fought the Romans. Albula, ancient name of river Tiber. Alcanor, a Trojan of Mt. Ida. Alcides (Hercules) Aleathoe, a Theban woman; was changed into a bat. Alcinous, a Phoenician King. Alcestis, daughter of Pelias and married Admetus. Alcippe, daughter of Mars by Agraulos. Alcmene, wife of Jupiter and mother of Hercules. Alcyone, daughter of Acolus; changed into a bird. Alea, a name of Minerva, from her temple at Tegea in Areadia. Actoeon, a Greek hunter. Alecto, one of the Furies. Alphenor, one of the Niobe’s sons. Althaea, mother of Meleager, whom she slew. Althoea, daughter of Thestius. Amata, wife of King Latinus, driven mad by Alector Amathusia, a name of Cyprus. Ambracia, a city of Epirus. Ammon, a name of Jupiter. Amor, the son of Venus; god of Love. Amphiaraus, son of Oecleus by Hypernestra. Amphirmedon, one of Penelope’s suitors, killed by Telemachus. Amphion, son of Jupiter, by Antiope. Amphissa, a daughter of Macareus. Amphithea, wife of Autolyeus. Amphrysus, a river of Thessaly. Amyeus, son of Neptune by Bythynis. Amymone, daughter of Danaus, murdered by her husband Enceladus. Amyntor, a king of Argos, son of Phastor. Amythaon, son of Cretheus by Tyre. Ancoeus, son of Lycurgus and Antinoe. Anchemolus, son of King Rhoetus. Anchisses, beloved of Aphrodite (Venus) by whom he was father of Aeneas Ancile, a sacred sheild from heaven in.the reign of Numa. Ancon, a town of Picenum. Ancus, Marcius – 4th King of Rome; built the town of Ostia. Ancyra, a town of Galatia. Andromache, daughter of Ection King of Thebes in Cilitia, married Hector. Andromeda, daughter of King Cephas and delivered from monster by Perseus. Anna, daughter of Belus and sister of Dido. Antenor, Trojan prince related to Priam. Anteros, a son of Mars and Venus, brother of Eros (Cupid) avenger of unrequited. Antilochus, sister of Nestor. Anthedon, a nymph and city of Boeotia. Anticyra, two towns of Greece famous for the hellebore produced by them. Antigone, daughter of King Oedipus by Jocasta, Greek ideal of filial and sisterly fidelity. Antiopa, daughter of King Nycteus, wooed by Jupiter as a satyr. Antiphates, a king of the Laestrygones, destroyed the fleet of Ulysses. Antiphus, son of Priam, killed by Agamemnon. Antissa, a city north of Lesbos. Apatura, a surname of Aphrodite meaning ‘purple’. Aphrodite, the Greecian name of Venus. Aphytis, a city of Thrace, where Jupiter Ammon was worshipped. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, God of music and Song. Appias, epithet of nymph at Aqua Appia. Appius (Claudius) an oppressive. Araxes, a river of Armenia. Arcadia, in middle of Peloponnessus, famous for mountains. Arcas, a son of Jupiter and Callisto. Archias, a Corinthian; founded Syracuse. Ares (= Mars) the Greek god of war. Arethusa, a nymph of Diana. Areturus, a star near tail of the Great Bear. Ardea, a town of Latium. Arete, married Alcinous. Argolis, a country between Arcadia and the Aegean sea. Argus, son of Arestor, had 100 eyes, Guardian of Io. Ariadne, daughter of Minos King of Crete by Pasiphae; freed Theseus from the labyrinth.. Aricia, ancient town of Italy. Arima, where Typhoeus was confined in Asia Minor. Arion, poet and musician of Lesbos. Arisba, Priam’s first wife. Aristaeus, son of Apollo and the nymph Cyrene. Aristaeus, the bee keeper, in love with Eurydice Aristomachus, son of Cleodoeus. Armoria, another name for Britain. Arsinoe, wife of Phegeus. Artemis, Greek name of Diana. Ascalaphus, son of Mars and Astyoche; killed by Deiphobus. Astarte, the Syrian goddess of moon and of love Asteria, daughter of Coeus one of the Titans, by Phoebe. Asterope, one of the Pleiades. Astroea, goddess of Justice, wife of King Astraus of Arcadia by Aurora. Astyanax, son of Hector and Andromache. Atlanta, daughter of King of Boetia; renowned for her swiftness in running. Atalanta, daughter of King of Icaria, won by Hippomenes. Ate, wife of Jupiter, destroyer of the Guilty. Atella, town of Campania, famous for a splendid amphitheatre. Athamas, son of Aeolus and Enarcte, King of Ochomenus. Athene, Greek name of Minerva. Athesis, now the river.Adige in Gaul. Athos, a mountain in Macedonia. Atina, an ancient town of Volsei. Atlantis, legendary island west of the pillars of Hercules. Atlas, son of Japetus and Clymene. Atrax, son of the river Perieus, King of Thessaly; father of Hippodamia. Atreus, a son of Pelops by Hippodamia King of Pisa, and brother of Chrysippus. Atropos, one of the Parcoe or Fates. Attica, a country of Greece. Atys, 1. a Trojan 2. Phrygian shepherd. Auge, daughter of Aleus by Naeva, and of Telephus by Hercules. Augeias, King of Elis; whose immense stables were cleaned by Hercules. Augustus, the 1st imperial Caesar. 31 B.C – 14 A.D Auriga, constellation of Wagoner. Aurora, = Eos, goddess of the Dawn. Autolycus, a son of Mercury, his craft as a thief celebrated. Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus, married Aristeus and had son Actaeon. Avatar, earthly incarnation of Vishnu. B Balius, a horse of Achilles. Baetica, a province in south Spain. Baucis, wife of Philemon of Phrygia. Baucis, wife of Philemon. Bellona, the Roman goddess of War. Belus, son of Poseidon and Libya (or Eurynome) twin brother of Agenor. Beroe, one of the Nereids. Bianor, son of the Tiberis and Manto. Bisaltia, a country of Thrace. Bootes, =Areas, son of Jupiter and Calisto, changed to constellation Ursa Major Boreas, the north wind, son of Astraeus and Aurora. Briseis, a captive maid of Achilles. Buddha, reformer of Brahminisin. B.C 562 –482. Busiris, a King of Eygpt. Butes, son of Telcon, saved by Venus. Buto, an Egyptian deity. Byblis, a daughter of Miletus. C Caelius, (Mons) one of the seven hills of Rome. Caeneus, a girl, Caenis, changed to a man by Neptune. Caere, (=Agylla) a city of Etruria. Calaureia, Island in bay of Argos. Callirrhoe, a daughter of Oceanus. Callisto, daughter of Lycaon King of Arcadia, made into constellation of the Bear. Calypso, one of the Oceanides. Camilla, a volscian huntress. Canace, daughter of Aeolus and Enarete. Caneus, a nymph wife of Picus. Canicula, the Dog-star. Canopus, a city of Eygpt. Capaneus, son of Hipponous. Carna, Roman goddess of Health. Cassandra, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. Cassiopeia, mother of Audro Castalius, sacred forest of Parnassus. Castor, twin brother of Pollux. Catana, a town at the foot of Mt. Etna. Caunus, a son of Miletus. Calaeno, daughter of Neptune and Terra. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia. Cerberus, three headed dog of Hades. Cercyon, King of Elcusis, wrestler. Cerinthus, a town of Euboea. Ceyx, King of Trachinia, Alcyone. Charis, goddess of Grace and Beauty. Charon, a river god of hell. Charybdis, a whirlpool of Sicily. Chimacra, monster with three heads. Chione, daughter of Daedalion. Chiron, a centaur. Chloris, daughter of Amphion. Chryseis, a Trojan maid, taken by Agamemnon. Chrysippus, a son of Pelops, killed by his step brothers. Chrysophanus, chryosos, gold. Circe, a sorceress, sister of Aestes. Clausus, king of the Sabines. Cleobis, a son of Cydippe, the priestess of Juno at Argos. Clio, one of the Muses Cloanthus, a companion of Aeneas. Cyane, a river that opposed Pluto’s passage to Hades Clytia, or Clytea a water nymph. Cocles, a celebrated Roman. Cocytus, a river of Epirus. Codrus, last King of Athens. Colias, a surname of Venus. Copia, Roman goddess of Plenty. Core (=Proserpine) daughter of Ceres. Coronea, a town of Boetia. Cortona, town of Etruria. Corycus, a mountain of Cilicia. Cremera, small river of Tuscany. Creon, King of Corinth. Cretheus, a son of Aeolus. Creusa, daughter of Creon. Crocale, a nymph of Diana. Cupido, god of Love Cybele, daughter of Uranus and Gaea. Cyclops, a giant with one eye. Cyenus, a son of Neptune killed by Achilles. Cyllene, a mountain of Arcadia. Cyme, largest town of Aeolis. Cynthia, a surname of Diana. Cyrene, a nymph, mother of Aristaus. D Daedalus, architect of Cretan labyrinth, and inventor of sails. Danae, mother of Perseus by Jupiter. Danaides, the fifty daughters of Danaus, King of Argos Danaus, son of Belus. Daphne, daughter of river Peneus. Dardanus, progenitor of Trojan Kings Deione, mother of Miletus by Apollo. Deiphobus, son of Priam and Hecuba. Delia, surname of Diana, born in Delos. Delos, island, birthplace of Apollo and Diana. Demodochus, bard of Alcinous, King of the Pharcians Deo, a name of Ceres. Derceto, fish-tailed goddess of Syria. Deucalion, King of Thessaly, who with his wife Pyrrha survived deluge. Dia, an island Diana, (Artemis) goddess of the Chase. Dido, daughter of Belus of Tyre, founded Carthage. Didyma, with famous oracle, near Miletus. Dindymene, (=Cybele) worshipped in Phrygia, mother of Juno. Diomedes, a brave Greek King of Argos. Dionaea, a surname of Venus. Dione, mother of Venus of Jupiter. Dis, = Pluto the god of Hell. Discordia, daughter of Nox, the cause of continual quarrels. Dodona, site of an oracle of Zeus. Dolon, a Trojan spy. Dolopes, a people of Thessaly. Dolopia, country of the Dolopes. Daplidice, a daughter of Danaus. Doris, daughter of Oceanus and Thetis. Drepana, a Sicilian town in form of a scythe. Dryas, father of Lycurgus Dymas, father of Hecuba. E Echidna, above as a beautiful woman, but as a serpent below the waist. Echo, an attendant of Juno. Eetion, father of Andromache and King of Thebes; killed by Achilles. Egeria, a nymph of Aricia in Italy, wife of Numa. Electra, one of the Oceanids, mother of Iris. Elephenor, prince of the Avantis, was one of Helen’s suitors. Elicius, = Jupiter, worshipped on Mount Aven. Elis, country famous for Olympic games held near Pisa. Elissa, old name of Island of Euboea. Elymi, a Trojan nation in Sicily. Encalades, a powerful giant. Enipeus, river of Thessaly, near Pharsalia. Enna, Sicilian where Pluto carried off Proserpine. Eos, Greecian name for Aurora. Epaphus, son of Jupiter and Io, founded Memphis in Egypt. Ephyra, ancient name of Corinth. Epimethis, name of Pyrrha. Epirus, country between Thessaly and Ionian sea. Erate or Erato, muse of poetry. Erebus, a deity of hell, son of Chaos. Erectheus, son of Pandion l, King of Athens, father of Pandora, Orithya, Procris etc. Eretria, city of Euboea on theEuripus. Eriboea, mother of Ajax Telamon. Eridanus, a river god, now the Po. Erigone, daughter of Icarus; constellation Virgo. Eriphyle, married Amphiaraus. Eros, god of Love. Erycina, name of Venus on Mt. Erye. Erymauthis, name of Callisto. Eryx, son of Butes and Venus, killed by Hercules. Etesia, a trade wind. Eumenides, = Erinnyes, avenging deities Euphrosyne, one of the Graces. Euripus, straight between Euboea and Boeotia. Europa, daughter of Agenor, carried off by Jupiter. Eurotas, a river of Laconia. Eurus, the east wind. Eurydice, wife of Orpheus, recovered from Hades but looked back and lost her. Eurynome, mother of the Graces. Eurypglus, son of Neptune, killed by Hercules. Eurysaces, son of Ajax Telamon and Tecmessa. Eurysthenes, with twin brother Procles, sat on Spartan throne F. Faesula, town in Etruria, famous for its oracles Favonius, west wind Feronia, Roman goddess of corn Flora, Roman goddess of Flowers. Fornax, Roman goddess of baking bread Fortuna, (=Tyche) goddess of Fortune. G Gades (=Cadiz) a town of Spain. Gaea, Greek goddess = Roman Terra. Galaesus, a river of Calabria. Gela, a town in Southern Sicily. Gigantes, the sons of Uranus and Gaea. Glaucus, a fisherman changed to a sea god. Graces, 3 daughters of Phorcys and Ceto. H Hades, son of Saturn, ruler of the underworld. Haemonia, … called Thessaly. Hamadryas, nymph presiding over trees. Harpalyce, daughter of Harpalycus King of Thrace, after his death she lived on plunder, but was caught in a net. Hebe, goddess of Youth, daughter of Juno. Hecate, in hell but Luna in heaven, presided over magic. Hector, son of Priam, King of Troy. Hecuba, wife of Priam, mother of Hector. Helena, a great beauty daughter of Jupiter and Leda, caused the Trojan war by eloping with Priam. Helenus, a celebrated soothsayer. Helius, Greek name of the sun, or Apollo. Hellas, an ancient name of Thessaly. Hellen, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha; by Orseis had Aeolus, Dorus and Xathus. Henna, Greek name for Juno. Hephaestus, Greek name for Vulcan. Hera, = Juno daughter of Cronos (Saturn) Heracles, = Hercules. Hercules, son of Jupiter and Alcmene. Hermes, Greek name for Mercury. Hermione, daughter of Manelaus and Helen Hermoine, killed her husband Pyrrhus and united herself with Orastes. Hermus, a river of Asia Minor. Hesione, saved from monster by Hercules. Hesperia, Greek name for Italy and Latin name for Spain ie. in the west. Hestia, Greek name for Vesta; Goddess of the hearth, a fire kept continually lighted in her temple. Hero, a priestess of Venus Hippocrene, fountain of Boeotia. Hippocrates, Greek physician. Hippodamia, daughter of Oenomaus king of Pisa. Hippolytus, famous in virtue and misfortunes. Hipponous, first name of Bellerophon. Hyale, a nymph of Diana Hyasinthus, killed by a quoit, his blood was turned into a hyacinth flower. Hydaspes, a river in India. Hylas, a youth detained by spring nymphs. Hyparmnestra, one of the 50 daughters of Danaus. Hyrsipyle, Queen of Lemnos. Hyria, a town of Boeotia. Hyrtacus, a Trojan who married Priam’s first wife Arista. I Iacchus, a name of Bacchus. Ialmenus, son of Apollo and Calliope. Icarius, spartan prince, father of Penelope. Icarus, son of Dardalus, flew too near to the sun and fell in to sea. Ida, 1. Mountain near Troy 2. Mountain in Crete. Idmon, prophet of the Argonauts. Idothea, daughter of Proteus. Ilioneus, a Trojan. Illissus, a small river of Attica. Ilithyia, a goddess, married Juno Inachus, founded Argos. Inarime, (=Ischia) island. Indra, Hindu god of Heaven and Storm Ino, married Athamas. Io, daughter of Inachus. Iolaus, assisted Hercules. Ion, son of Xuthus and Creusa. Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon. Iphis, daughter of Telethusa, was passed for a boy. Irene, one of the Horae. Iris, messenger of Juno, also the rainbow. Isabella, daughter of King Galicia. Isis, an Egyptian deity. Ismene, sister of Antigone. Ismenos, son of Niobe Issa, wooed by Apollo as a shepherd. Ister, = the Danube river. Itys, killed by his mother Procne. J Janus, Latin deity with double face. Jason, secured the golden fleece from Colchis by Medea’s aid. Jocasta, wife of Laius and of Oedipus Juno, the Greek Hera, sister and wife of Jupiter. Jupiter, the Greek Zeus, King of Heaven. Juventa(s), the Roman Hebe. L Lacedemon, = Spatra, the capital of Laconia. Ladon, a river of Arcadia. Laerties, father of Ulysses Laius, son of Labdacus and king of Thebes. Lamia, monster, woman above but lower part a serpent. Lampetia, daughter of Apollo and Neaera. Lampsacus, town of Asia Minor. Laocoon, priest of Apollo. Laomedon, father of Priam and built Troy. Larissa, a city near Pencus in Thessaly. Latona, daughter of Coeus and Phoebe. Laurentia, wife of Faustulus. Lathonia, = Latona, mother of Diana and Apollo. Lavinia, daughter of king Matinus and Amata. Labadca, a town of Boeotia. Lebadea, site of the oracle Trophonius Leda, mother of Pollux and Helen by Jupiter in form of swan. Lethe, a river of hell, whose waters caused forgetfulness. Leto, Greek name for Latona. Leucippe, sister of Aleithoe. Leucippus, father of Hilaira and Phoebe. Leucothoe, (=Matuta) wife of Athamas. Lotis, nymph changed into Lotus. Loxias, = Apollo. Lucania, part of Italy. Lucifer, Venus when a morning star. Lucina, Greek Itythyia, a goddess. Luna, Greek Selene, moon goddess. Lycaon, first king of Arcadia. Lycus, King of Boeotia. Lydia, a kingdom of Asia Minor. Lynceus, a son of Aegyptus, who married Hypermnestra daughter of Danaus. Lyncus, king of Scythia; changed to a lynx. M Macareus, son of Aeolus. Machaon, famous Greek surgeon, son of Aesculapius and brother of Podalirius. Maera, the dog of Icarius. Maia, one of the Pleiades. Malis, a district near mount.Oeta. Marathon, a village 20 miles from Athens. Maronea, a city in Terace. Mars, Roman god of War. Marsyas, a flute-player of Phrygia. Massicus, mountain of Campania. Matuta, the Greek Leucothoe. Medon, son of Codrus. Medusa, one of the three Gorgons, Perseus cut off her head. Megaera, one of the Furies. Meges, one of Helen’s suitors. Melampus, soothsager and physician. Melanippe, daughter of Chiron. Melanippus, a Theban chief. Melanthus, conquered Xanthus. Meleager, one of the Argonauts Melegar, son of Oeneus and Althoea. Melissa, priestess of Merlin’s tomb Melpomene, the Muse of Tragedy Memmon, son of Tithonus, assisted his uncle Priam and killed Antilochus. Menelaus, son of the King od Sparta, husband of Helen Menippe, daughter of Orion. Merope, one of the Atlantides. Merops, King of the Island Cos. Messene, daughter of Triopas. Mezentius, a cruel king killed by Aeneas. Miletus, son of Apollo. Minerva, the Greek Athene, goddess of Wisdom and War. Minois, a name of Ariadne. Minos, King of Crete. Miscnus, trumpeter to Hector. Mnemosyne, mother of the 9 Muses. Mulciber, a surname of Vulcan. Mygdonia, small province near Thrace. Myrrha, changed to a tree, myrrh. Myrtilus, armbearer to King Oemmaus Mysia, a country of Asia Minor. Mytilene, capital of Lesbos. N Narcissus, fell in love with his own reflection in fountain. After death his blood became flowers. Nausicaa, daughter of Alicinous, King of Pheucians, and befriended Ulysses. Neleus, son of Neptune and Tyro. Nemea, a place in Argolis where Hercules killed the Neman lion. Nephele, first wife of Athamas. Neptunus, (=Poseidon of the Greeks) King of the Sea. Nereides, sea nymphs, Thetis etc. Neritos, the mountain island of Ithaca. Nestor, a Trojan leader with 2 brothers. Nestus, a small river of Thrace. Nike, goddess of Victory, daughter of Pallas and Styx. Ninus, 1. Son of Belus 2. The city Nineveh. Niobe, provoked Batona to kill her children. Niphates, Mountains dividing Armenia and Assyvia. Nireus, Greecian chief noticed for beauty Nisus, killed by Euryalus. Nola, an ancient town of Campania. Nomius, shepherds name for Apollo. Nox, night, the daughter of Chaos. Numa, second King of Rome. Nycteus, had daughter Antiope. Nysa, a mountain sacred to Bacchus. Nyseus, a name of Bacchus. Nysius = Bacchus, god of Nysa Nyx, Greek name for Nox. O Oceanus, god of the Sea. Oedipus, King of Thebes who solved the Sphinx’s riddle. Oenone, nymph of Ida and wife of Paris. Oenotria, part of Italy (Lucania) Oeta, Mountains from Thirmoglae to Amlrain. Ogyges, monarch of Boeotia. Ogygia, old name of Boeotia. Omphale, Queen of Lydia Olympia, plain in Elis where the Olympic games were held. Ophiusa, ancient names of Rhodes and Cyprus. Ops, = Greek Rhea, goddess of Plenty. Orchomenus, a town of Boeotia. Orestes, son of Agamemnon took Diana’s statue from Chersonisus. Orion, a giant and a constellation. Orithyia, mother of Cleopatra, Zetus and Calais. Orpheus, a son of Aegarus of Calliops, tamed wild beats with music. Ortygia, ancient name of island Delos. Othrys, a chain of mountains in Thessaly. Oxylus, a leader of Heraclidoe. Ozolia, eastern part of Aetolia. P Pactolus, Midas turned the water of this river into gold. Palaemon, a sea deity. Pales, goddess of the pastures. Palinurus, the pilot of Aeneas. Pallas, the same as Minerva and Athena. Pallene, (Phlegra) Macedonian: peninsula. Panarus, son of Lycaon. Pandion, King of Athens, father of Philomcla. Pandora, the first female, Jupiter gave her a box forbidden to open full of evils but with hope at the bottom. Panope or Panopea, a Nereid. Paphus, son of Pygmalion, by a statue changed into a woman. Parcoe, goddess of Fate. Paris, (=Alevexander) son of Priam King of Troy by Hecuba. Parnassus, mountain near Delphi Parrhasius, an Arcadian. Parthenope, (Neapolis) in Campania. Pasiphae, daughter of the sun and of Perseis. Pasithea, (Aglaia) one of the Graces. Peirithous, son of Ixion. Pelias, son of Neptune by Tyro. Pelides, …. Of Achilles and Pyrrhus. Pella, a town of Macedonia. Pelopea, a daughter of Thyestes Pelorus, north east promontary of Sicily Penelope, daughter of Icarius. Penthesilea, queens of the Amazons. Pentheus, King of the Thebes in Boeotia. Perdix, sister of Daedalus. Periboea, daughter of Alcathous, mother of Ajax. Periphas, one of the first kings at Attica. Pero, daughter of Neleus, mother ofTalaus. Perse, one of the Oceanides. Persephone, (Proserpine) queen of the lower regions. Perses, father of Hecate. Perseus, cut off the Medusa’s head. Perusia, ancient town of Etruria. Petilia, a town of Bruttium. Phaedra, daughter of Minos; married Theseus. Phaon, became beautiful by contents of a box given him by Venus. Phemius, a musician suitor of Penelope. Pheres, father of Admetus. Phigalia, town of Arcadia. Philemon, husband of Baucis. Philomela, sister of Proene, changed into a nightingale. Phineus, married Cleopatra, daughter of Boreas, and later Idoea. Phlegeton, a river of hell. Phelgyas, son of Mars by Chryse Phocaea, a coast town of Ionia. Pheobe (Artemis, Diana) goddess of Moon. Phoebus, the Sun or Apollo. Phoenix, son of Agenor, settled in a country Phoenicia. Pholoe, mountain near Pisa. Pholus, one of the Centaurs. Phorbas, son of Priam. Phorkys, or Phoreys, a sea deity. Phrixus, son of King Athamas. Phrygia, a country of Asia Minor. Phylacc, a town of Thessaly. Pierides, the Muses, born in Pieria. Pimplea, a town of Macedonia. Pindus, a chain of mountains sacred to Muses. Pirene, fountain in Corinth Pirithous, son of Ixion. Pistor, or baker, name of Jupiter. Platoea, a town of Boeotia. Plexippus, brother of Althoea. Plisthenes, son of Atreus. Pluto, King of the lower world. Podalirius, son of Aesculapius, brother of Machaon. Polias, or Minerva, protectress of cities. Polites, son of Priam and Hecuba. Pollux, son of Jupiter and Leda. Polydorus, a son of Priam and Hecube. Polymies, King of Thebes Polymnestor, married Ilione eldest daughter of Priam. Polynices, son of Oedipus King of Thebes. Polyphemus, giant son of Neptune Polyphontes, one of the Heraclidae. Polyxena, daughter of Priam and Hecube, immolated at Achilles tomb. Pomona, goddess of fruit trees. Pompilius, (Numa) second King of Rome. Posenna, King of Etruria Poseidon, (Neptune) King of the Sea. Priamus, son of Laomedon, last King of Troy. Priapus, god of gardens and of fertility. Priscus, surname of elder Tarquin. Procles, brother of Eurysthenes. Procne, vide. Philomela. Procris, daughter of Erechtheus King of Athens. Proteus, the old man if the sea Psyche, was married by Cupid. Pudicitia, goddess of chastity. Pygmoei, a nation of dwarfs. Pylos, a town ruled by Nestor. Pyramus, a youth of Babylon in love with Thisbe. Pyrrha, alone with her husband Deucalion escaped the deluge. Pyrrhus, a son of Achilles. Pythia, priestess of Apollo at Delphi. R Remus, brother of Romulus was put to death by his orders. Rhadamanthus, a judge of hell. Rhamnus, a town in Africa famous for a statue of Nemesis Rhea, = Cybele, mother of Jupiter. Rhenes, of Thrace, killed by Greeks. Rhesus, a King of Thrace, son of Eioneus Rhodanus, the river Rhone. Rhode, a daughter of Neptune. Rhoecus, a centaur. Romulus, with his brother Remus was fed by a wolf; founded Rome. Rumina, a goddess at Rome S Salamis, an island off south coast of Attica. Sancus, a Sabine deity. Sangarius, a river of Phrygia. Sardis, a town of Asia Minor. Sarpedon, a son of Jupiter. Saturnus, son of Uranus, the Greek Cronus. Satyrs, male divinities of the forest Sciron, plundered and killed travellers. Scylla, a rival of Circe, name of rock between Italy and Sicily. Selene, = Luna of the Romans. Semele, daughter of Cadmus, mother of Bacchus. Semiramis, queen of Assyria. Seriphus, an island where Danae and Perseus were discovered in a chest. Serapis, an Egyptian deity (=Osiris) Sibylla, she that tells the will of Zeus. Silvius, son of Ascanius, king of Alba Sinis, famous robber killed by Theseus. Sinope, daughter of Asopus. Sintlea, a district of Macedonia. Siphnos, one of the Cyclades Islands. Sipylus, town and mountain of Lydia. Siren, a sea nymph who enticed mariners to destruction by music. Sirius, the dog-star. Soracte, mountain of Etruria, seen from Rome. Soranus, (=Apollo) Sabine god. Sparta, capital of Laconia. Sperchius, a river of south Thessaly. Sphinx, a monster who proposed a riddle to the Thebans. Sthenelus, King of Mycaena, son of Perseus and Andromeda. Stimula, an Italian deity who excited ambition or love. Strongyloe, an island near Sicily. Strymon, a river between Thrace and Macedonia. Stymphalis (=elus), apart of Macedonia. Suessa, a town of Campania. Susa, capital of Persian Empire. Symethus, a river in east of Sicily. Syrinx, a nymph changed to a read. Sylvanus, a woodland deity. T Tages, son of Genius, grandson of Jupiter Tanagra, a town of Boeotia. Tanais, a river of Scythia; the Don. Tantalus, punished with insatiable thirst, and up to the chin in water. Taras, Greek name for Tarantum. Taygetus, a mountain range of Laconia. Telmessa, a Phrygian princess. Tegea, a town of Arcadia. Telamon, son of Aeacus and Endeis. Telegonus, married Penelope, father of Italus. Telemachus, son of Ulysses and Penelope. Telephassa, mother of Cadmus, Phoenix and Europa by Agenor. Telephus, son of Hercules and Auge. Tellus, = Terra, a very ancient deity. Teos, a maritime town of Ionia. Terminus, Roman god of boundaries. Terrra, see Tellus. Tethys, greatest of sea deities. Teuthras, King of Mysia, adopted Auge. Thalia, one of the muses; one of the Graces. Thamyras, musician of Thrace. Thaumantis, = Iris, daughter of Thaumas. Thaumas, son of Neptune and Terra. Thea, (Theia) daughter of Uranus and Terra, mother of Sun, Moon and Aurora. Thersites, a deformed brawler killed by Achilles Themis, presided over law and justice. Theseus, King of Athens; killed the Minotaur. Thessalia, a country of Greece. Thestius, father of Toxeus, Plexippus and Aithoea. Thetis, (grand daughter of Tethys) mother of Achilles. Thisbe, of Babylon, beloved by Pyramus Thoas, his life spared by his daughter Hypsipyle. Thule, island in the German ocean. Thyestes, son of Pelops and Hippodamia. Thymbroeus, name of Apollo at Thymbra. Thyone, = Semele. Tigris, river, Eastern boundary of Mesopotamia. Tiresias, prophet of Thebes. Tisamenus, son of Orestes and Hermione. Tisiphone, one of the Furies. Titan, a name given to some deities. Tithonius, son of Laomedon – was turned into a cicada. Tmolus, a King and mountain of Lydia. Triopas, son of Neptune and Canace. Tritogeneia, a surname of Minerva. Triton, son of Neptune and Amphitrite, could still the sea and storms. Trivia, = Diana; presided over places where 3 roads met. Trolius, son of Priam and Hecuba. Trojanus, an inhabitant of Troy. Tyche, = Fortuna. Tydeus, father of Diomedes. Typhaon, Typhon, a giant with two heads like those of a serpent. Tyro, a beautiful nymph of Elis. Tyrtacus, a lame schoolmaster, inspired the Spartans by his lyrics. U Ulysses, (Greek Odysseus) King of Ithaea, a great leader in the Trojan war, hero of the Odyssy Upis, = Diana. Urania, the Muse of Astronomy. Uranus, husband of Goea. V Venilia, a nymph, sister to Amata. Venusia, a town of Apulia. Vesta, the Greek Hestia, goddess of the Home. Her temple had a fire kept continually lighted. Vesta, daughter of Ceres Victoria, the Greek Nice, a Roman deity. Virtus, personification of courage. Vulcanus, (=Hephaestus) the Roman god of fire. X Xanthus, rivers of Troas and Lycia. Xuthus, a son of Helen. Z Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra and of the East. Zephyrus, the west wind. Zethus, Zetus, son of Jupiter and Antiope, brother of Amphion. Zeus, Greek name for Jupiter. Zeuxis, Greek painter (B.C 500) Zoroastes, Zoroaster, a Persian who reformed the Magian religion.

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